Blood in the urine

Haematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. This can be macroscopic (it is visible), or microscopic (can only be detected by a microscope). It can be associated with symptoms, which usually means it is due to an infection, or it can be painless.

All painless haematuria, whether it be microscopic or macroscopic, needs to be investigated. This involves an ultrasound scan of your kidneys or bladder,  or a CT scan, as well as a flexible cystoscopy to examine the lining of your bladder and urethra.

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What causes it? 

There are many different causes of haematuria.

Common causes are

Smoking increases your risk of bladder cancer when compared to the general population. The majority of bladder cancer, if found, is superficial (non-invasive), and low-grade. It can usually be treated endoscopically.